Qingdao Artificial Casing Co., Ltd.
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Tel: +86 532 8598 5679
Fax: +86 532 8598 1331
E-mail: sales@artificialcasing.cn
Add: Room 1302 Xinyuanlidu, No. 159 North Fuzhou Road, Qingdao 266100, China

Cellulose Casings

Cellulose as a natural material derived from wood or cotton has proven to be suitable for sausage casings as it is:
  • mechanically resistant
  • widens when soaked in water and shrinks when dried (which exactly meets the requirements for a tight and smooth casing without formation of wrinkles on the sausage surface)
  • permeable for gases, smoke and water vapour

Simple thin cellulose casings are used as so called peeling casings for frankfurter type sausages. The batter is filled into such casings (caliber range 12-42 mm) and portioned. Thereafter the products undergo smoking and cooking (at 74oC), which causes the build-up of a firm layer of coagulated protein under the casing. After this heat treatment, the cellulose casings are removed and the sausages maintain their shape due to the firm external layer of coagulated protein. As ready-to-eat sausages do not have a casing, they are also known as “skinless sausages” (Fig. 326, 327, 328).

Cellulose casings are not suitable for larger sausage calibers as frequent breakages may occur due to rupture of the cellulose wall. In order to solve this problem, fibrous casings were developed. Fibrous casings are cellulose casings reinforced with strong cellulose fibres. These fibrous casings are resistant enough for large sausage calibers and still suitable for smoking (Fig. 329).

As a further step in the development of strong fibrous casings for large calibers, a layer of synthetic material, (e.g. PVDC) was added to the inside or outside of the casings (coated fibrous casings). The coating made the casing mechanically very resistant and created a complete barrier for gases, i.e. no evaporation losses can occur (Fig. 330).

However, fibrous casings with an inside or outside synthetic coating cannot be used for products to be smoked, as no smoke penetration is possible, and for products to be dried and fermented, as no water vapour evaporation is possible. They are mainly used for cooked sausages of the raw-cooked and the precooked-cooked type. The main advantage of coated fibrous casings for cooked sausages is the casing wall tightly enclosing the sausage mix and the easy peeling. As smoke does not penetrate through coated fibrous casings, smoke flavour can be added during manufacture of the sausage mix if desired.

Directions for Use
  • Casings should be stored sealed in cartons, in a cool dry location away from direct sunlight. Ideal storage conditions are at 4 degree C - 24 degree C and 55% to 60% RH. In these storage conditions, the casings have a two years shelf life.
  • The shirred casing is fully ready to use as shipped in the Caddy, and must not be immersed in water prior to using.
  • The shirred casing can be used with all types of sausage processing, including liquid smoke, acid showers, natural smoke, steam and water cooking, and can make all types of sausage. Speedy Peel casings work with acid shower buffered above pH 4. Below pH 4, use Regular Peel casings, which work in pH range 2.5 to 3.5 with maximum acid concentration of 10%. Acid showers are typically sprayed for one minute time duration, at a temperature of 38 degree C.
  • Always ensure the stuffing machine is set up correctly, and the casing is filled to the desired recommended stuffing diameter, using the correct linker chains and the correct stuffing tube. When stuffing tubes are undersized, air can enter the meat and fat can separate in the meat emulsion. When the casing is too large,it will break because it cannot rotate freely on the stuffing tube.
  • The stuffed casing surface should be moist without any water droplets when smoke is applied. Water droplets on the casing surface will leave spots on the sausage. Very dry casing prohibits adequate smoke penetration, creating pale color.
  • The stuffed casings should be processed in the smokehouse within 45 minutes after stuffing, or else smoke color will be harder to develop and peeling will become more difficult.
  • Typically the stuffed Speedy Peel casing is processed at relative humidity of 20% to 35%, and Regular Peel casings at humidity greater than 40%. Higher humidity improves peeling, but creates more fat on the surface of the sausage, and also lightens the sausage color. Below 20% humidify, the product will be impossible to peel.
  • Oven cooking temperatures should be set to reach desired sausage internal temperature, and to enhance sausage skin color development.
  • After processing, but before peeling, the stuffed casing must be chilled very quickly to reduce the sausage temperature, preferably with brine chill if available. Otherwise later the casing will not peel. Ideal chill temperature is under 4 degree C.
  • The stuffed casing should be extremely damp in order to peel, and then peeled while cold, at less than 4 degree C temperature, preferably using steam peelers.
  • To optimize sausage manufacturing, especially peeling, casings will be customized, with various mechanical properties, various end closures, various compositions and various additives.

Storage Conditions:

The casings should be stored in the cartons and caddy boxes between 4 deg C and 25 deg C, at room Relative Humidity of 50% to 70%.
Keep the casing away from direct sunlight, both caddies and cartons.
Unused casing should be returned to the caddy and covered completely in plastic so the casing will not dry out.
If the casing does dry out due to exposure to air, put the casing in a refrigerated high humidity room to remoisturize.
Always use casing FIFO: First In First Out, because the casing has a limited shelf life.